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当前位置: 首页 > 考研 > 试卷列表 > 2024年考研《英语(一)》模拟试卷(三)


  • 年份:2024年
  • 类型:模拟试题
  • 总分:100.00分
  • 时长:180分钟
  • 题量:48
  • 做题人数:0人
Section Ⅰ、Use of English(Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and markA,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  • Scientists typically submit their papers to the editorial board of a journal specializing in a particular field of research.1______the paper is accepted for publication, the editorial board sends it out for peer review.During this procedure a panel of experts, or referees, 2______the paper,judging whether or not the research has been carried 3______in a fully scientific manner.If the referees are satisfied, publication 4______.If they have 5______, some of the research may have to be repeated, but if they 6______serious flaws, the entire paper may be rejected for publication. The peer-review process plays a critical role because it 7______high standards of scientific method. 8______, it can be a controversial area, as it allows 9______views to become involved.Because scientists are human, they cannot avoid 10______personal opinions about the value of each other’s work.Furthermore, because referees 11______to be senior figures, they may be less than welcoming to new or unorthodox ideas.
    Once a paper has been accepted and published, it becomes part of the vast and 12______body of scientific knowledge.In the early days of science, new research was always published in printed form, but today scientific information spreads by many different 13______.Most major journals are now available via the Internet, which makes them quickly 14______to scientists all over the world.
    When new research is published, it often acts as a springboard for further work.Its impact can then be 15______by seeing how 16______the published research appears as a cited work.Major scientific breakthroughs are cited thousands of times a year, but at the other 17______, obscure pieces of research may be cited 18______or not at all.However,citation is not always a 19______guide to the value of scientific work.Sometimes a piece of research will go largely 20______, only to be rediscovered in subsequent years.


Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartA(Read the following four texts.Answer the questions after each text by choosingA,B C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
  • Sigmund Freud has been out of the scientific mainstream for so long, it’s easy to forget that in the early-20th century he was regarded as a towering man of science—not, as he is remembered today, as the founder of the marginalized form of therapy known as psychoanalysis.At the start of his career, he wanted to invent a "science of the mind", but the Victorian tools he had were too blunt for the task.So he dropped the"science" part and had his patients lie on a couch, free-associating about childhood, dreams and fantasies.
    This technique yielded the revolutionary notion that the human mind was a soap opera of concealed lust and aggression, of dark motives, self-deception and dreams rife with hidden meaning.The problem was, Freud had lots of anecdotes but almost no empirical data.With the invention of tools like the PET scan that can map the neurological activity inside a living brain, scientists discounted the windy speculations of psychoanalysis and dismissed Freud himself as the first media-savvy self-help master.
    But a funny thing happened to Freud on the way to becoming a trivia question:as researchers looked deeper into the physical structure of the brain, they began to find support for some of his theories.Now a small but influential group of researchers are using his insights as a guide to future research;they even have a journal,Neuro-psychoanalysis, founded three years ago."Freud’s insights on the nature of consciousness are consonant with the most advanced contemporary neuroscience views", wrote Antonio Damasio, head of neurology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine.
    Beyond the basic animal instincts to seek food and avoid pain, Freud identified two sources of psychic energy, which he called "drives":aggression and libido.The key to his theory is that these were unconscious drives, shaping our behavior without the mediation of our waking minds;they surface, heavily disguised, only in our dreams.The work of the past half-century in psychology and neuroscience has been to downplay the role of unconscious universal drives, focusing instead on rational processes in conscious life.Meanwhile, dreams were downgraded to a kind of mental static, random scraps of memory flickering through the sleeping brain.But researchers have found evidence that Freud’s drives really do exist, and they have their roots in the limbic system.Freud presaged this finding in 1915, when he wrote that drives originate "from within the organism" in response to demands placed on the mind "in consequence of its connection with the body".Drives, in other words, are primitive brain circuits that control how we respond to our environment.


Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartB(Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 point)
  • When we meet people for the first time, we often make decisions about them based entirely on how they look.And, of course it’s something that works both ways, for we too are being judged on our appearance.When we look good, we feel good, which in turn leads to a more confident and self-assured manner.People then pick up on this confidence and respond positively toward us.Undoubtedly, it’s what’s inside that’s important, but sometimes we can send out the wrong signals simply by wearing inappropriate clothing or not spending enough time thinking about how others see us.

    For example, people often make the mistake of trying to look like someone else they’ve seen in a magazine, but this is usually a disaster as we all have our own characteristics.Stand in front of a full-length mirror and be honest with yourself about what you see.There is no need to dwell on your faults—we all have good points and bad points—but think instead about the best way to emphasize the good ones.

    When selecting your clothes each day,think about who you’re likely to meet, where you’re going to be spending most of your time and what tasks you are likely to perform.Clearly, some outfits will be more appropriate to different sorts of activity and this will dictate your choice to an extent.However, there’s no need to abandon your individual taste completely.After all, if you dress to please somebody else’s idea of what looks good, you may end up feeling uncomfortable and not quite yourself.

    But to know your own mind, you have to get to know yourself.What do you truly feel good in? There are probably a few favorite items that you wear a lot—most people wear 20 percent of their wardrobe 80 percent of the time.Look at these clothes and ask yourself what they have in common.Are they neat and tidy, loose and flowing? Then look at the things hanging in your wardrobe that you don’t wear and ask yourself why.Go through a few magazines and catalogues and mark the things that catch your eye.Is there a common theme?

    Some colors bring your natural coloring to life and others can give us a washed-out appearance.Try out new colors by all means, but remember that dressing in bright colors when you really like subtle neutral tones, or vice versa, will make you feel self-conscious and uncomfortable.You know deep down where your own taste boundaries lie.And although it’s good to challenge those sometimes with new combinations or shades, take care not to go too far all at once.

    So, you’ve chosen an outfit that matches your style, your personality, your shape and your coloring.But does it fit? If something is too tight or too loose, you won’t achieve the desired effect, and no matter what other qualities it has,it won’t improve your appearance or your confidence.Sometimes, we buy things without thinking.Some people who dislike shopping grab the first thing they see, or prefer to use mail-order or the Internet.In all cases, if it doesn’t fit perfectly, don’t buy it, because the finer details are just as important as the overall style.
    Reappraising your image isn’t selfish because everyone who comes into contact with you will benefit.You’ll look better and you’ll feel a better person all round.And if in doubt, you only need to read Professor Albert Mehrabian’s book Silent Messages to remind yourself how important outward appearances are.His research showed that the impact we make on each other depend 55 percent on how we look and behave, 38 percent on how we speak and only 7 percent on what we actually say.So, whatever stage you are at in your life, whatever role you play, isn’t it time you made the most of yourself?

    A.Analyzing Your Own Taste

    B.Being Cautious When Experimenting

    C.Finding a Model to Follow

    D.Getting the Final Look Absolutely Right

    E.Learning to Be Realistic

    F.Making Regular Conscious Choices


Section Ⅱ、Reading Comprehension PartC(Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  • It helps to speak more than one language—even if the benefits are unquantifiable. Just a few generations ago, speaking two languages was supposed to be bad for you. Tests in America found that bilingual people had lower IQS, which seemed evidence enough. (46) Later it became clear that those surveys were really measuring the material poverty of immigrants; members of such families were more likely to be undernourished and understimulated, not to mention the obvious fact that they often sat the tests in a language that was not their best.How things have changed. In the past decade it has become almost common knowledge that bilingualism is good for you—witness articles such "Why Bilinguals are Smarter" and "The Amazing Benefits of Being Bilingual" by the New York Times and the BBC. (47) Most notably, they have shown that bilinguals get dementia on average four years later than monolinguals, and that they have an edge in "executive control"—a basket of abilities that aid people doing complex tasks. Why bilingualism would enhance these capabilities is unclear. (48) Researchers hypothesise that having two languages means suppressing one when speaking the other, a kind of constant mental exercise that makes the brain healthier.But as intellectual pendulums do, this one has begun to swing again, against the "bilingual advantage". Roberto Filippi of University College London and his colleagues have spent five years testing more than 600 people, from seven to 80 years old and including some who oscillate between two languages. They could find no statistically significant advantage in any age cohort. (49) In response to the scepticism, researchers who believe in the advantage have refined their studies—now acknowledging that bilingual people use their languages in varying ways that may account for the incongruent previous results. A second language expands the number of people you can talk to. It adds to the ways you can say things, and so offers a second point of view on the whole business of expression. (50) One study found that bilingual children are better at grasping other perspectives, perhaps because they are always keeping track of who speaks what, a regular reminder that everyone is different.


Section Ⅲ、Writing PartA(Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  • Suppose you were invited by Professor William to work as an assistant in his new program, but you had a plan for writing a paper. Write an email to him to refuse his invitation, make an apology, and recommend your roommate to him.
    You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
    Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)


Section Ⅲ、Writing PartB(Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
  • Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
    1) describe the drawing briefly,
    2) explain its intended meaning, and
    3) give your comments.
    You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)